Cloud Dancer
3-D Disciplines
Compulsory Sequences
Practice Judging Video
2001

http://www.koyn.com/CloudDancer/3Dcompulsories01.html
Introduction

This video is provided for practice judging sessions of the Compulsory Sequences for all the 3-D Disciplines. For each discipline, each individual compulsory sequence (with multiple samples) is shown in order. At the end the discipline segment, there is at least one full compulsory jump to practice scoring. Freestyle (FR) Compulsory Sequences are shown first. Skysurf (SK) Compulsory Sequences are shown second and Freefly (FF) Compulsory Sequences are shown third.

The interpretation of the rules can be subject to opinion and resemble a process of interpreting law. For this reason, this tape serves to present real world performances of the compulsory sequences rather than a certain interpretation of the rules. However, the first move shown in each grouping has been selected as it seems to most closely resemble the description provided in the rules. Other compulsory sequences have been selected for inclusion in the tape to deliberately raise controversial issues.

Before using this video for practice judging sessions, be sure you have the video tape dated May 2001 and that you have the FAI Parachuting Commission Competition Rules for Freestyle Skydiving, Skysurfing & Freeflying 2001 on hand. You should also have the IPC Committee Freestyle Skydiving, Skysurfing & Freeflying News Bulletin #10 March 2001 on hand. The video is not for sale. However, a copy of this video may be obtained by getting one from someone who has one or by writing me at Tamara@EXTRAWORDkoyn.com

This written documentation is for the moderator of the judging practice using this tape as a tool. The video fades to and from black between each compulsory sequence. This allows the moderator of judging practice to scan forward or backward and quickly detect changes from one compulsory sequence to the next or previous respectively.

If you are not the moderator, you may first wish to practice judging the clips before reading this documentation so that you can prepare to contribute your judging expertise to the judges' panel by developing your own views, questions, and issues to discuss with fellow judges and your chief judge prior to the start of the next event you judge.

Each clip has questions that the moderator of judging practice may wish to ask to the practicing judges. In the case that the moderator of judging practice is chief judge, s/he may announce certain views and decisions as final to the practicing judges in response to the questions associated with the clips. Notes about the clips mention certain aspects of the performance. Naturally, you will notice more aspects about the performance than what is included in the notes.

This tape can be used without this documentation and still be very beneficial for judging practice and rules review. The main goal is for you to develop your own views, to judge in the fairest manner possible and, when competition is complete, to assist in the clarification of writing rules for future competitions.

Notice to PAL viewers: Much of the video was originally shot in PAL format but compiled together in the NTSC format. Because it has undergone conversion back to the PAL format, the PAL copies of this practice judging tape are inferior in quality (a slight strobe like effect).

Freestyle Skydiving

5.10. Compulsory Routine Freestyle Skydiving & Skysurfing.

5.10.1. Judges give a score for the Performer between 0 and 10, up to one decimal point, for each of the four (4) Compulsory Sequences, using the following guidelines;

Performer
10 points--Move performed flawlessly.
8 points--Some minor breaks in form (toes not pointed {freestyle skydiving only} knees bent, finish slightly off heading, slight wobble, etc..)
5 points--Mistakes. (about 45 degrees off heading, wobble, not enough rotations, etc..)
3 points--Major mistakes. (about 90 degrees off heading, major wobble, not enough rotations, etc..)
0 points--Move not identifiable

5.10.2. Judges give a score for the Videographer between 0 and 10, up to one decimal point, for the compulsory components including camera requirements of the whole jump, using the following guidelines:

Videographer
10 points--Flawless camerawork: stable image, no loss of image or focus, correct distance at all times.
8 points--Momentary loss of image, framing or focus, occasional distance errors
5 points--Loss of image, framing or focus, or incorrect distance for no more than about 20% of the working time.
3 points--Inferior picture for about 50% or more of the working time.
0 points--Unsuitable image.

5.10.3. Any move performed, not included in the drawn order for that particular Compulsory Round, will not receive a score.

ADDENDUM - A
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING COMPULSORY SEQUENCES 2001
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS & JUDGEMENT CRITERIA

All sequences shall have a static start and a static stop.

FR-1. BBF Layout Loop Twist Sequence
Back Layout Loop - Back Layout Loop Half Twist - Front Layout Loop Full Twist

Back Layout Loop:
-Start shall be from a layout posititon in upright orientation.
-One complete 360 back layout rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Back Layout Loop Half Twist:
-Entry into the Back Layout Loop Half Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the Back Layout Loop.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Half Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Front Layout Loop Full Twist:
-Entry into the Front Layout Loop Full Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the Back Layout Loop Half Twist.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Full Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the Waist.
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must show Performer from his/her side at the start of the compulsory sequence, should stay in place, and must show the opposite side of the Performer at the end of the compulsory sequence.

Clip #1: The performer uses the standup position for the static start and stop position, although a loss of balance occurs when the performer finishes into the standup. Holding a standup position for a long period of time requires the Videographer to be able to maintain a fast fallrate. For Videographers that film while flying face-down, this is very difficult to accomplish! For Videographers that freefly, this can still present a challenge. Judges may be tempted to reward additional points in consideration of this difficulty. However, the rules for the compulsory routine make absolutely no mention of difficulty points for the compulsory sequences.

Clip #2: The performer begins in a Compass and then clearly shows a standup before beginning the loop. This allows the performer to maintain a slower fallrate to make the sequence easier for the Videographer to film and still to comply with the requirement to show a standup prior to the first loop. When finishing in a standup, the performer overshoots and he leans forward from the waist to recover balance.

If the sequence in Clip #1 and Clip #2 where performed with perfect control, should they both earn the same number of points? If not, why?

Clip #3: The performer begins in a Straddle stand and then closes the legs to show a standup prior to the first loop. The performer performs a Back Layout Loop, a Back Layout Loop Full Twist, and then a Back Layout Loop Half Twist. Did you catch this? The rules indicate that the sequence should be a Back Layout Loop, Back Layout Half Twist, and Front Layout Loop Full Twist. Rather than showing a static ending pose, the freestylist performs two extra Front Layout Loops. Would you consider this to be plagued with "Major mistakes," which would get a score of about 3 as described in section 5.10.1?

FR-2. FFB Layout Loop Twist Sequence
Front Layout Loop - Front Layout Loop Half Twist - Back Layout Loop Full Twist

Front Layout Loop:
-Start shall be from a layout position in upright orientation.
-One complete 360 front layout rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the Waist.
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Front Layout Loop Half Twist:
-Entry into the Front Layout Loop Half Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the Front Layout Loop.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Half Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Back Layout Loop Full Twist:
-Entry into the Back Layout Loop Full Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the Front Layout Loop Half Twist.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Full Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must show Performer from his/her side at the start of the compulsory sequence, should stay in place, and must show the opposite side of the Performer at the end of the compulsory sequence.

Clip #1: The performer uses the standup position for the static start and stop position. The performer experiences some loss of balance when he finishes. Does the half twist evenly occupy a full 360 degrees of the loop?

Clip #2: The static start position is a Compass pose. The static finish position is also a compass pose. Do you decide to award fewer points because the performer failed to show a static standup prior to the first loop? If you review Bulletin #10, does this change your score? Why? The full twist is approximately a 270 degree twist.

Clip #3: After the Back Layout Loop Full Twist, the performer performs additional loops and then stops in a Daffy pose. How do you score this compulsory in consideration that a static pose was not shown after the third loop? After reviewing Bulletin #10, do you change your score? Why?

FR-3. Straddle Headstand Sequence
Any Upright Pose - Half-Loop into Straddle Headstand - Straddle Headstand Turn (360) - Half-Loop into Any Upright Pose.

Upright Pose:
-Torso must be vertical, and not bent at the waist, in an upright orientation.

Half Loop:
-Either a front, side, or back half-loop may be performed.

Straddle Headstand:
-Torso must be vertical, in a head-down orientation.
-Legs must be in line with the torso. (when viewed from the side)
-Legs must be straight and straddled apart, with at least a 90 angle between them.
-Good stability and balance must be shown while entering the Straddle Headstand.

Straddle Headstand Turn:
-Torso and leg position must not change during the turn.
-A single 360 turn must be performed.
-Good stability and balance must be maintained during the entire turn.
-Turn may be in either direction.
-Turn must be smooth.
-Either a front, side or back half-loop may be performed to enter to final upright orientation.

Camera requirements:
-The Camera must make half a synchronized Barrel Roll with the Performer entering and leaving the Straddle Headstand, showing an image as if the Performer remains static with only the background moving.
-The Camera is not allowed to orbit around the Performer nor change heading, during the Straddle Headstand of the Performer.

Clip #1: The Videographer performs each half camera roll in sync with the performer's rotation into and out of the head-down orientation. This performer uses a cartwheel to enter and leave the head-down orientation. Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: The performer uses a loop to transition into and out of the head-down orientation. Because the performer is facing away from the camera when making a half backloop to the head-down orientation, the performer does not appear entirely static in the frame as the camera makes a half roll. It is similar when the performer makes a half frontloop back to an upright pose to finish the compulsory sequence. For this sequence to comply completely with the rules, must the performer show his side to the Videographer in the case that s/he chooses to perform half loops for entering and leaving the head-down orientation?

Clip #3: While the performer uses a half cartwheel to enter and leave the head-down orientation, the Videographer performs a half roll in opposition to the rotation of the cartwheel. Would this be considered "Major mistakes," which would earn a score of about 3 as described in section 5.10.1? Notice that when the Videographer rotates in opposition to the performer's cartwheel motion, judges must have a swift eye to catch breaks in body form.

Clip #4: The Videographer does not perform the required half camera rolls when the performer is entering and leaving the head-down orientation. If Clip #3 is considered to have "major mistakes," then what score would this compulsory sequence receive?

Clip #5: Because the Videographer is drifting horizontally, it is more challenging for novice judges to determine whether or not the performer performed exactly a 360 degree Straddle Headstand Turn. Newly added to the 2001 rules, "The Camera is not allowed to orbit around the Performer nor change heading, during the Straddle Headstand of the Performer." Prior to this new additional clarification, it was not defined whether the 360 degree turn had to be accomplished relative to the camera or the surroundings. In consideration of the Videographer's errors, what score would you award to this compulsory? After considering Bulletin #10, do you change your score?

If Clip #3 and Clip #4 receive 3 points are less, what scores would you award to performances that are accurate to the description in the rules but the performers have very poor body control?

4. Side Full Twist Sequence
Cartwheel - Side Layout Full Twist - Cartwheel

Cartwheels:
-Start shall be from a straddle position in upright orientation.
-Torso must be straight, without any bend at the waist.
-Head, shoulders and torso must be in line, facing the same direction throughout the Cartwheel (without any twist in the torso).
-One complete 360 sideways rotation must be performed.

Side Layout Full Twist:
-Entry into the Side Layout Full Twist must be smooth and without stopping after the first Cartwheel.
-One complete 360 sideways rotation must be performed.
-One Full Twist must be performed within and evenly spread throughout the 360( sideways rotation.
-Legs must remain straight and together and in line with the torso.
-Twist may be in either direction.
-Looping movement must remain about the horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Entry into the final Cartwheel must be smooth and without stopping after the Side Layout Full Twist.

Camera requirements:
-The Camera must make a synchronized Barrel Roll with the Performer during his/her Side Layout Full Twist, showing an the image as if the Performer is remains static with only the background moving.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

A-3. Straddle Position (freestyle skydiving)
-The torso is straight, with no bend at the waist.
-The legs are split apart, from side to side, with at least a 90 angle between them.
-The legs are straight.
-The toes are pointed.
-The head is in line with the torso.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? During the Cartwheels, the legs are spread less than 90 degrees. However, is it sufficient for the performer to show the straddle position only at the start and in the upright orientation? Do the rules indicate a requirement that the legs have to remain in the straddle for the entire 360 degree Cartwheel rotation? (Also, the body form is not clean.)

Clip #2: The Videographer does not perform a 360 degree camera roll when the performer performs the Side Layout Full Twist. Would you consider this to be "Major mistakes?" Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10? If you do, how can you be sure that every competitor had seen this bulletin? During the Cartwheels, the performer's legs are not spread 90 degrees apart.

FR-5. Orbiting Compass

Compass position:
-A static Compass position in upright orientation must be demonstrated prior to starting the rotation.

Compass turn:
-The Performer must make a 360 turn.
-Turn can be in either direction.
-Turning motion must be smooth.

Camera requirements:
-At the start, camera must show the front of the Performer. (face to face)
-Cameraflyer must make a full 360 orbit around the Performer. (without changing the distance between Team Members during orbit)
-Camera Orbit must be in the opposite direction as the turning direction of the Performer.
-Movement must be synchronous, both Performer and Cameraflyer ending at the same position where they started. (Performer and Cameraflyer will come face to face twice, excluding the start)
-Orbiting motion must be smooth.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

A-11. Compass position (freestyle skydiving)
-Torso must be vertical and straight, with no bend at the waist.
-One leg must be straight down.
-The other leg is bent forward 90 at the hip, with the leg straight
-Either leg may be the forward leg.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: While carving, the Videographer makes an oval shape, almost as if to fly past the performer two times when the performer turns in the Compass position. The raised leg is higher such that it is more than 90 degrees. Because of the greater flexibility shown, judges perceive that this move is more difficult when the leg is raised higher than 90 degrees. The natural judging reaction is to score higher for more flexibility. Positioning the leg exactly at 90 degrees is difficult for flexible freestylists but easier for freestylists who do not have the flexibility. Positioning the leg higher than 90 degrees is easy for those flexible freestylists but impossible for freestylist who do not have the flexibility. In any case, is difficulty listed or described in the rules as one of the evaluation criteria for the compulsory sequences? Will you consider difficulty in the evaluation of the compulsory sequences? If your answer is yes, how will competitors know that difficulty is important for performing the compulsory sequences? How will they know what method of performing the compulsory sequence will score higher? In Addendum B, the compass position is defined with the raised leg "bent forward 90 degrees at the hip." Would you interpret this to mean that both more or less than 90 degrees would be equally unacceptable? The following survey question was presented to competitors of the World Cup 2000. "According to your understanding of the Orbiting Compass compulsory sequence, which will help you get a better score? (Circle One) Having one forward EXACTLY at 90 degrees OR Having the forward leg higher than 90 degrees" 15 respondents indicated, "Having one forward EXACTLY at 90 degrees." 1 respondent, a freestyle performer, did not answer the question.

Clip #3: The legs are positioned exactly at 90 degrees. The Videographer chooses to film the sequence with the video image upside-down. Does the upside-down video image influence the score you award? Why? Are your reasons known to any competitor who studies the rules with great care?

Clip #4: Contrary to the description prescribed in the rules, the Videographer carves in the same direction as the freestylist pirouettes. Would this be considered as "Major Mistakes" or would this be considered as "Move not identifiable"? (This video clip has had digital video effects applied so that the video appears upright so as to present only one issue during the practice judging session. In the actual performance, the Videographer filmed with the video image upside-down during this compulsory sequence.)

FR-6. Straddle Backstop (Cradle) Sequence
Back Layout Loop - Straddle Backstop - Straddle Kip - 180 Upright Turn Near Upright Position - Straddle Backstop - Straddle Kip - Front Layout Loop

Back Layout Loop:
-One complete 360 back layout rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing the heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Straddle Backstop:
-Torso must stop near horizontal (on the back) while legs continue rotating as the waist bends into a straddle pike position.
-Legs stop their movement near the horizontal point, in the straddle pike position (the stop is only momentary and does not have to be held).
-Legs must remain straight throughout the move.
-Legs must be straddled apart, with at least a 90 angle between at the point where the torso stops rotating.
-Body must remain symmetrical, without tilting, twisting or changing heading.

Straddle Kip:
-After the legs have stopped moving backwards in the Straddle Backstop, they must reverse direction and start rotating forwards while the torso remains nearly stationary for an instant.
-Legs may remain straddled apart as they rotate forwards, but must come back together as they arrive straight in line with the torso which is moving towards the upright orientation.
-Torso must remain symmetrical, without tilt, twist, or change in heading.

180 Upright Turn: -As the torso straightens and moves through the upright orientation, the torso must turn to face a heading 180 from the starting heading such that the 180 turn and the torso rotation are performed simultaneously (without stopping in the upright orientation).
-When the torso passes through the upright point, the torso must be straight and the legs must be straight and together.

Second Straddle Backstop and Straddle Kip
-Same requirements as the first one.

Front Layout Loop:
-As soon as the torso straightens and the legs come together (after the second straddle backstop and kip), the forward loop must start without hesitation.
-One complete 360 front layout rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

A-5: Straddle Pike Position (freestyle skydiving)
-The torso is bent forward at the waist such that the angle between the torso and the thighs is less than 90.
-The legs are split apart, from side to side (in a Straddle), with at least a 90 angle between them.
-The legs are straight.
-The toes are pointed.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The legs are spread to at least a full 90 degrees during the Straddle Kip.

Clip #2: The starting static pose is this freestylist's position on the door sill. Does this effect your scoring? The compulsory movement is performed on the "hill" making it appear that one Straddle Kip is slightly undershot and the other is slightly overshot relative to the view of the ground and horizon. It's possible that novice judges may not relate to the relative wind real well so it is not very wise for a competitor to perform this compulsory sequence on the hill and on perfect heading with the line of flight with his Videographer looking straight down the hill. The Videographer films the compulsory sequence on the same plane as the looping movement such that it is very easy to evaluate the spread of the legs.

Clip #3: The legs are spread almost to 90 degrees but still less than 90 degrees. When the Videographer films from the side, judges often believe that the legs are 90 degrees because they tend to mentally overcompensate for the foreshortening effect resulting from a side view of this sequence. The performer starts the half twist from a pirouetting action and then falling out if it into backloop. (A number of competitors in past competitions have made the error in performing a 180 degree pirouette rather than a half twist.)

One way of scoring a compulsory sequence is asking oneself, "How close to perfect was the performance?" However, depending on how complicated a compulsory sequence, a single certain attribute can seem more or less significant in the total criteria for the compulsory sequence. Good toe point during the Cradle Sequence seems to have a smaller percentage of importance since the entire sequence is more complicated with more components. Good toe point has more significance in the Straddle Headstand Sequence since it is less complex. For this reason, a judge may tend to score a Cradle sequence with poor toe point as a 9.5 and a Straddle Headstand Sequence with poor toe point as a 9.

FR-7. Helix Spin
Helix Spin

Helix Position:
-The body must be in an upright orientation.
-Torso must be vertical and straight, with no bend at the waist.
-One leg must be straight down.
-The other leg is bent forward about 70 to 90 at the hip, and the knee is bent downward and outward such that the toe of the bent leg is placed right in front of the knee of the straight leg. The lower part of the bent leg must have a 45 angle to straight leg.
-The foot of the bent leg must not touch the other leg; yet, and stay close to the knee of the straight leg.
-Either leg may be the bent leg.
-A static Helix position (without turning) must be demonstrated prior to starting the rotations.

Helix Spin:
-The Helix must spin rapidly, with a minimum of five (5) revolutions performed within five (5) seconds from the start of the first revolution. (more revolutions may be performed)
-The spin direction must be towards the foot of the bent leg. (If the right leg is bent across the left, it spins to the left, and vice versa.)
-Torso must stay upright and not tilt or wobble during the spins.

Clip #1: A stationary pose is shown for the start of the sequence. More than 5 revolutions are performed. Raised leg is positioned with the knee directly in front of the same hip and foot is angled across the mid-line of the body to be positioned in front of the knee of the straight leg. Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer has the knee of the raised leg turned outward, away from the mid-line of the body, thereby positioning the leg in a similar position as the "Passee" position known in Ballet class. The rules make no mention whether or not the knee of the raised leg must be directly in front of that same hip. The foot is not touching the leg. A stationary pose is shown at the start of the sequence but, at the end of the sequence, the performer continues motion into an Inverted (back-down) orientation. About 5 1/2 revolutions are performed. Are they performed in 5 seconds?

Clip #3: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? A stationary pose is shown for the start of the sequence. 5 revolutions are performed. Since the rules indicate, "(more revolutions may be performed)," will you be giving the same score for exactly 5 revolutions performed as well as more than 5 revolutions performed? Also, during the revolutions, this Videographer is moving horizontally, making approximately a 90 degree orbit...This means the revolutions could be counted with respect to the ground references or with respect to the camera. Which reference will you use? Do the rules provide any information on this? Regarding the Helix position, the raised leg is positioned with the knee directly in front of the same hip and foot is angled across the mid-line of the body to be positioned in front of the knee of the straight leg. The foot is positioned closer to the knee. Since the rule reads, "The foot of the bent leg must not touch the other leg; yet, and stay close to the knee of the straight leg," should a Helix with the foot closer to the knee get a better score than when the foot is slightly further from the knee?

Clip #4: Does the performer sufficiently show the Helix as a stationary pose? The raised leg is positioned exactly parallel with the foot not in front of the knee of the raised leg. Are the 5 revolutions performed in 5 seconds? Do you consider this performance to be plagued with "Major Mistakes?" Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10?

Clip #5: Did the foot touch the knee? If it did touch the knee, would this be regarded as "Major Mistakes?" How does this effect your score? The 5 revolutions are performed in more than 5 seconds. How serious is this mistake? "Major Mistakes?"

Clip #6: The foot of the raised leg is actually positioned to the opposite side of the knee of the straight leg. Since the rules read, "and the knee is bent downward and outward such that the toe of the bent leg is placed right in front of the knee of the straight leg," how serious is this mistake? The bottom leg has an oscillating appearance during the rotations, since it is not straight down into the relative wind.

Clip #7: A stationary pose in the Helix position is not shown. The raised leg is positioned exactly parallel with the foot not in front of the knee of the raised leg. The movement stops in a Compass.

Clip #8: A stationary pose in the Helix position is briefly shown. Should a stationary pose that is clearly shown earn a higher score? The knee of the raised leg is held higher than the hip. The bottom leg has an oscillating appearance during the rotations, since it is not straight down into the relative wind. On the sixth revolution, the performer slips into a Daffy.

FR-8. Stag Loop Twist Sequence
Back Stag Loop Back - Stag Loop One and Half Twist - Front Stag Loop

Back Stag Loop:
-Start shall be from a Stag position in upright orientation.
-One complete 360 back rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and the downward leg in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading. -Looping motion must be smooth.
-The body and legs must maintain the Stag position throughout the loop.

Back Stag Loop One and Half Twist:
-Entry into the Back Stag Loop One and Half Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the first Back Stag Loop.
-One complete 360 Stag rotation must be performed.
-One and Half Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and downward leg in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist.
-The legs must maintain the Stag position during the loop.
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motions must be smooth.
-The body and legs must maintain the Stag position during the loop.

Front Stag Loop:
-Entry into the Front Stag Loop shall be smooth and without any stopping after the Back Stag Loop One and Half Twist.
-One complete 360 Stag rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and downward leg in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist.
-Looping movement must remain about the horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.
-The body and legs must maintain the Stag position during the loop.

Camera requirements:
- Camera must show Performer from his/her side.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

A-2. Stag Position (freestyle skydiving)
-The torso is straight, with no bend at the waist.
-One leg is straight and in line with the torso.
-The other leg is bent forward at the hip and the knee is bent back to place the toe.
-beside the knee of the straight leg. The bent leg is bent at least 90 at the knee.
-The toes are pointed.
-The head is in line with the torso.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? 1 1/2 twists start from facedown and finish by headup through the course of a 1 1/4 loop rotation.

Clip #2: The performer performs the 1 1/2 twist, starting from face-down, using 1 1/2 loops. The foot of the leg in the stag position is flexed and moves from the knee to the calf area.

Clip #3: The performer performs a back half twist instead of a back 1 1/2 twist. How serious do you consider this mistake to be? "Major Mistakes?"

FR-9. Thomas Flair

Thomas Flair (3 revolutions)
-For the complete Thoams Flair, the torso must roll through 360 as it turns through 360 flat turn. The torso must be flat at the start of the rotation, on its side when 90 of the turn is complete, on it s back when 180 of the turn is complete, and on the other side when 270 of the turn is complete.
-Legs must remain straddled apart, with at least a 90 angle between them.
-When the torso reaches the 90 point in the turn, the leading leg (forward leg in the turn direction) must be raised near vertical, and the trailing leg must remain near horizontal on that point.
-When the torso reaches the 180 turn point (on its back), both legs must be raised with the waist bent such that the body is in a straddle pike position.
-When the torso reaches the 270 point in the turn, the leading leg must be lowered near horizontal, and the trailing leg must be raised near vertical.
-When the torso completes the turn, the trailing leg must return to horizontal.
-The head must remain facing the same direction throughout all the rotations.
-At least three (3) complete rotations must be performed.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must show Performer from the front and on level.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? A straddle pike position is shown with the torso on its back. The performer begins the sequence from Flat (face-down).

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer begins the sequence from Inverted (back-down). At the Inverted (back-down) point, the performer is in a Straddle V-seat and is not fully back-down.

Clip #3: The performer performs the compulsory sequence with a different style, though the sequence does get off heading. In the imaginary case that this were performed with more accurate heading control, some judges may consider the move to not be identifiable and award 0 pts while other judges may consider the body position errors to be a minor problem and award higher points. This type of situation can create a divided panel of judges.

FR-10. Full Eagle Sequence
Full Eagle

Eagle start position:
-Performer is in a head-down orientation.

Camera requirements:
-Cameraflyer is in a stand-up or sit orientation. (assuming videocamera is mounted normally, e.g. not upside down, on the helmet)

Full Eagle, first half:
-The Performer in a head-down goes below aiming just below the legs of the Cameraflyer, the Cameraflyer goes simultaneously over of the Performer, so that both Team members end up in opposite positions than they originally started.
-The rotation should be performed as one continuous movement..

Full Eagle, second half:
-The Performer, now in a stand-up orientation goes over the Cameraflyer, the Cameraflyer, now in a head-down orientation, goes simultaneously below aiming just below the legs of the Performer, so that both Team members end up in their respective starting positions.
-The rotation should be performed as one continuous movement..

Camera requirements:
-Camera must show Performer from his/her front.
-The same distance between Performer and Cameraflyer should be maintained during the whole Sequence.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? Camera is mounted in the normal manner.

Clip #2: Only observing this team prepare for exit reveals that the Videographer's camera is mounted upside-down and that the Videographer uses the correct body position. With the camera mounted upside-down and unknown to judges, it would appear that the Videographer is flying in the incorrect orientations. Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #3: The freestylist and Videographer are far from one another during the Eagle movement. A judge had responded that s/he really enjoyed the sense of "flying through the air" that this distance creates and awarded a better score. What do you think? A higher score? Or, a lower score? Why? Is there a proximity requirement that must be met? If yes, can competitors know that by carefully studying the rules?

Clip #4: When the performer is directly below or above the Videographer, the top of the performer's head (instead of the front of the chest) is visible. Would this cause you to score less points?

Sample Freestyle Compulsory dive for practice judging. Compulsory sequences are: Straddle Backstop (Cradle) Sequence, Straddle Headstand Sequence, Stag Loop Twist Sequence, and Orbiting Compass. It is assumed that this practice judging tape will be paused on freeze frame by the moderator or with Pegasus or other tool.

Skysurfing

5.10. Compulsory Routine Freestyle Skydiving & Skysurfing.

5.10.1. Judges give a score for the Performer between 0 and 10, up to one decimal point, for each of the four (4) Compulsory Sequences, using the following guidelines;

Performer
10 points--Move performed flawlessly.
8 points--Some minor breaks in form (toes not pointed {freestyle skydiving only} knees bent, finish slightly off heading, slight wobble, etc..)
5 points--Mistakes. (about 45 degrees off heading, wobble, not enough rotations, etc..)
3 points--Major mistakes. (about 90 degrees off heading, major wobble, not enough rotations, etc..)
0 points--Move not identifiable

5.10.2. Judges give a score for the Videographer between 0 and 10, up to one decimal point, for the compulsory components including camera requirements of the whole jump, using the following guidelines:

Videographer
10 points--Flawless camerawork: stable image, no loss of image or focus, correct distance at all times.
8 points--Momentary loss of image, framing or focus, occasional distance errors
5 points--Loss of image, framing or focus, or incorrect distance for no more than about 20% of the working time.
3 points--Inferior picture for about 50% or more of the working time.
0 points--Unsuitable image.

5.10.3. Any move performed, not included in the drawn order for that particular Compulsory Round, will not receive a score.

ADDENDUM - A
SKYSURFING COMPULSORY SEQUENCES 2001
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS & JUDGEMENT CRITERIA

All sequences shall have a static start and a static stop.

SK-1. BBF Layout Loop Twist Sequence
Back Layout Loop - Back Layout Loop Half Twist - Front Layout Loop Full Twist

Back Layout Loop:
-Start shall be from a layout position in upright orientation.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso without any bend at the waist
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Back Layout Loop Half Twist:
-Entry into the Back Layout Loop Half Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the first Front Layout Loop.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Half Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with torso, without any bend at the waist.
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Front Layout Loop Full Twist:
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Full Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must show Performer from his/her front at the start of the compulsory sequence, should stay in place, and must show the back of the Performer at the end of the compulsory sequence.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer is slightly off heading when finishing the Front Layout Loop Full Twist.

Clip #2: The last half of the Front Layout Loop Full Twist resembles a pirouette for finishing the movement.

Clip #3: The performer performs the sequence facing away from the Videographer. How serious is this mistake and how much should this effect the score? Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10? If so, do all competitors have the information that was included in Bulletin #10? Is it fair to all competitors if only some or none of the competitors know about Bulletin #10?

SK-2. Tracking Back Loop Sequence
Tracking - Back Layout Loop

Tracking:
-The Performer shall start from a layout position in an upright orientation, with his back facing the camera.
-The Performer shall change into a Tracking position and start moving horizontally away from the Videographer who must remain in place.
-Tracking shall be maintained a minimum of three seconds.
-At completion of track the Performer must stop and perform a 180 turn.
-The Performer tracks towards the Videographer who must remain in place.
-Tracking shall be maintained until the Performer is near the Videographer.
-The Performer shall finish in an upright orientation, in layout position, facing the camera.

Back Layout Loop:
-The Back Layout Loop should be performed close to the Videographer with his front facing the camera.
-One Back Layout Loop must be performed, ending in an upright orientation.
-Legs must remain straight during the Loop.
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

A-10. Track Position (skysurfing)
-The upper body must be horizontal.
-The surfboard must have an angle to the horizon of at least 45 with the front point downward.
-The head of the Performer will be ahead of the surfboard.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer is not bent forward at the hips during the tracking. Other skysurfers may actually bend in the hips. If so, would that effect your scoring? Why or why not?

Clip #2: The performer is not bent forward at the hips during the tracking. Does the tracking last for a sufficient amount of time? Would a skysurfer who tracks at least the full three seconds expect to get a better score than this performer? If you consider the track to be less than three seconds, how serious is this mistake? Is it a "Major Mistakes?" (BTW, the skysurfer slightly overshoots his backloop.)

SK-3. Helicopter Sequence
Inverted Layout Spin (Helicopter)

Inverted Layout Spin (Helicopter):
-Entry into the Helicopter can be from any other position and/or orientation.
-A static layout position in inverted orientation must be shown before starting the spin.
-Torso must stay vertical and head-down and not tilt or wobble during the spins.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-The Helicopter must spin rapidly, with a minimum of five (5) revolutions performed within five (5) seconds from the start of the first revolution. (more revolutions may be performed)
-The spin must be performed in the direction of the forward foot on the surfboard.
-Good stability and balance must be maintained during the spins.
-Spin must stop within one revolution, without tilting or wobbling.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

B. ORIENTATIONS
B-2. Inverted Orientation - The torso is horizontal, on its back, facing upwards towards the sky.
B-5. Head-Down Orientation - The torso is vertical with the head down, towards the ground.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer demonstrates a static position in the Head-down Orientation and not the Inverted (back-down) Orientation. The description of the compulsory indicates that "A static layout position in inverted orientation must be shown before starting the spin." Since the Inverted Orientation is defined with "the torso horizontal, on its back," does this mean that the performer must show a static layout position on the back before establishing the vertical head-down spinning motion of this compulsory sequence? How serious is this mistake? Would you consider this to be "Major Mistakes?" Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10? Also, more than 5 revolutions are performed. The description indicates that "Spin must stop within one revolution, without tilting or wobbling." Does this mean that a skysurfer who performs exactly 5 revolutions would earn a better score?

Clip #2: More than five revolutions are performed. Does the performer sufficiently demonstrate a static position prior to the start of this compulsory sequence? How serious is this mistake and how does it effect your scoring? Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10?

SK-4 Tidy Bowl Sequence
Tidy Bowl in the Hole

Over-Under:
-The Performer is in an upright orientation.
-The Performer moves under the Videographer while performing half a back loop, maintaining visual contact with the video camera and ending in an inverted layout orientation.
-The rotation should be one continuous movement.
-After a stationairy stop the Performer performs the helicopter for a minimum of three (3) seconds.

Camera requirements:
-The Videographer performs half a front loop, synchronous with the Performer during the over-under move, ending with an inverted video image.
-The Videographer makes a stationary stop at the same time as the Performer.
-The Videographer orbits inverted around the Performer (whilst performing the helicopter) for a minimum of 360.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

B. ORIENTATIONS
B-2. Inverted Orientation - The torso is horizontal, on its back, facing upwards towards the sky.
B-5. Head-Down Orientation - The torso is vertical with the head down, towards the ground.

The description of the Over-Under portion of the compulsory sequence indicates, "and ending in an inverted layout orientation." Does this mean that a stationary Inverted (back-down) Orientation somehow must be shown during the execution of this compulsory sequence?

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? When transitioning to the head-down orientation, the video shows the chest area of the performer. The Videographer carves in the same direction as the skysurfer's Helicopter spin rotation. The Videographer completes 270 degrees of carving. The performer is goofy-footed, i.e., the right foot is forward on the sky board.

Clip #2: When transitioning to the head-down orientation, the video shows the head/chest area of the performer. The Videographer carves in the opposite direction as the performer's Helicopter spin rotation. The Videographer completes about 180 degrees of carving.

Clip #3: When transitioning to the head-down orientation, the video shows the performer's back. Does the angle of view onto the performer effect your scoring? If yes, can competitors know that by carefully studying the rules? The Videographer completes about 180 degrees of carving.

SK-5. Double Side Layout Loop Sequence
Side Layout Loops with synchronized Barrel Rolls

Side Layout Loop
-The Side Layout Loop shall be performed close to the Videographer with the Performers front facing the camera during the Loop.
-One Side Layout Loop must be performed, starting and ending in an upright orientation.
-Legs must remain straight during the Loop.
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis (through the Performers front to back), without tilting or changing heading.

Camera requirements
-Camera must show the front of the Performer. (face to face)
-Camera must make a synchronised Barrel Roll with the Performer, showing an image as if the Performer remains static with only the background moving.

Side Layout Loop (opposite direction)
-Second Side Layout Loop must be performed in the opposite direction with the same performance criteria as the first, including the Videographer.

Camera requirements
-Camera must show the front of the Performer. (face to face)
-Camera must make a synchronised Barrel Roll with the Performer, showing an image as if the Performer remains static with only the background moving.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? At the end, the performer is 90 degrees off heading and then corrects. The Videographer is shooting into the sun.

Clip #3: The performer performs a full twist during the second Side Layout Loop. Did you catch this?

Clip #4: The performer performs both Side Layout Loops in the same direction. The Videographer makes no synchronised Barrel Roll with the performer during the first Side Layout Loop. Would you consider this to be the compulsory sequence? If no, and the performer than performed the compulsory sequence immediately afterwards, would you score this clip as the first attempt on the compulsory sequence? BTW, when a synchronized Barrel Roll is not performed well, the Videographer tends to show a swirling motion on the video screen.

SK-6. Sit Spin and Body Rolling Spin Sequence
Sit Spin and Body Rolling Spin

Sit Spin:
-Entry into the Sit position must be from a layout position in upright orientation.
-The Sit Spin must be performed in an inverted orientation.
-The torso must be nearly horizontal in an inverted orientation.
-One thigh must be nearly vertical, the other thigh is more in line with the surfboard.
-The buttock must remain in contact the surfboard during the revolutions.
-The Sit Spin must spin rapidly, with at least five (5) revolutions performed within five (5) seconds from the start of the first revolution. (more revolutions may be performed)
-The spin must be performed in the direction of the forward foot on the surfboard.
-The body must stay in line and not tilt or wobble during the spins.
-No handgrip may be taken on the board.

Body Rolling Spin:
-Entry into the Body Rolling Spin must be smooth and without stopping after the Sit Spin.
-The Performer must be in a horizontal plane. (belly to earth)
-The Performer must turn around the vertical axis while performing the barrel rolls.
-One complete 360 rotation around the vertical axis (turn) must be performed.
-Three Body Rolls must performed within the turn.
-Legs must remain straight and in line with the torso
-Rolling movement must remain about the horizontal axis, without tilting or wobbling.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must be in the same horizontal plane as the Performer during the Sit Spin.
-Camera must be above the horizontal plane of the Performer during the Body Rolling Spin.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer performs exactly 3 rolls during the body rolling spin. Assuming that all other aspects of performance are equal, should this skysurfer receive better reward than another skysurfer who performs more than 3 rolls?

Clip #2: The performer grabs the tail of his board during the sit spin. How serious is this mistake? The performer performs more than 3 rolls during the body rolling spin.

Clip #3: The sit spin is slower--is there 5 revolutions within 5 seconds? The body rolling spin goes head-down making it difficult to count the number of rolls.

In all the clips, there is always a portion of a flat turn after the sit spin and before the body rolls begin. Is this a reason for deducting points?

SK-7. Side Layout Twist Sequence
Side Layout Loop

Side Layout Loop Full Twist
-A complete 360( Side Layout Loop must be performed, ending in an upright orientation.
-One Full Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist.
-Legs must remain straight throughout the Loop.
-Looping movement must remain about the horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer clearly performs a back full twist rather than a Side Layout full twist. At the 1/4 point, the head is fully obscured by the torso and surf board. Some judges may consider the move to not be identifiable and award 0 pts while other judges may consider the body position errors to be a minor problem and award higher points. This type of situation can create a divided panel of judges. Also, if the sequence is not considered to be identifiable at all, does this mean that this performer had the option to attempt the sequence again and receive a score on that second attempt?

SK-8. Body Spin Sequence
Body Spin

Body Spin:
-The Performer must be in a horizontal plane. (belly to earth)
-Two complete 360 orbits around the Videographer must be performed.
-Legs must remain straight and in line with the torso.
-Movement must remain about the horizontal axis, without tilting or wobbling.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must be the centre of the turns, following the Performer synchronously.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer is bent in the hips.

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The skysurfer is laying down more flat with the body more straight in the hips.

SK-9. Scorpion
Scorpion

Scorpion:
-Entry into the Scorpion shall be from a layout position in upright orientation, into a flat orientation, with the arms in a box position (like in Formation Skydiving).
-The surfboard must be in a position behind the back of the Performer in a nearly horizontal plane.
-The Performer must grab the surfboard towards the rear, with his/her hand of the same side at which his/her back foot is mounted on the surfboard.
-The Scorpion must spin rapidly, with a minimum of five (5) revolutions performed within five (5) seconds from the start of the first revolution. (more revolutions may be performed)
-Spin can be in either direction.
-Movement must remain about the horizontal axis, without tilting or wobbling.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must be in the same horizontal plane as the Performer during the Scorpion.

Clip #1: The performer enters the move in a frontloop direction. The board is positioned inline with the body. The performer grabs the board with the right hand (same as back foot).

Clip #2: The performer enters the move in a frontloop direction. The performer uses a hen house-like body shape. The performer grabs the board with the right hand (same as back foot). Does the performer perform 5 revolutions within 5 seconds?

Clip #3: The performer enters the move in a backloop direction. Does it matter if the performer enters the sequence in a forward or backward looping direction? The surf board is perpendicular to the body. The performer grabs the board with the left hand (opposite of back foot). How serious is this mistake?

SK-10. FFB Layout Loop Twist Sequence
Front Layout Loop - Front Layout Loop Half Twist - Back Layout Loop Full Twist

Front Layout Loop:
-Start shall be from a layout position in upright orientation.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso without any bend at the waist.
-Loop must be about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading. -Looping motion must be smooth.

Front Layout Loop Half Twist:
-Entry into the Front Layout Loop Half Twist shall be smooth and without any stopping after the first Front Layout Loop.
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Half Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Back Layout Loop Full Twist:
-One complete 360 layout rotation must be performed.
-One Full Twist must be performed within and evenly executed throughout the loop.
-Torso must be straight and legs in line with the torso, without any bend at the waist
-Looping movement must remain about a horizontal axis, without tilting or changing heading.
-Looping motion must be smooth.

Camera requirements:
-Camera must show Performer from his/her side at the start of the compulsory sequence, should stay in place, and must show the opposite side of the Performer at the end of the compulsory sequence.

ADDENDUM B
FREESTYLE SKYDIVING, SKYSURFING & FREEFLYING 2001
BASIC ORIENTATIONS AND BODY POSITIONS

D. BASIC ROTATIONAL ACTIONS
D-3. Loops - A loop is a head-over-heels rotation around the horizontal axis, initiated about either the body left-right axis or the body front-back axis, when either of these axes are aligned with the horizontal axis. The body goes through an upright position and a head-down position during the course of the loop. A loop is considered complete when the head has travelled 360 around the horizontal axis from the point at which is started. A loop need not start in an exact upright or flat position. There are three kind of loops. Note that loops are referred to by the direction in which the loop is initiated, since in the case of twisting loops, the direction in which the loop completes may be different from the direction at the start.
-Back Loop - A back loop is a loop where the rotation is initiated about the body left-right axis with the torso rotating backwards.
-Front Loop - A front loop is a loop where the rotation is initiated about the body left-right axis with the torso rotating forwards.
-Side Loop - A side loop is a loop where the rotation is initiated about the body front-back axis with the torso rotating sideways.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: The board is off the axis of the body with the hips slightly open. The rules make no reference to how the board must be positioned with respect to the body, but do specify that the Body Left-Right Axis be aligned with the Horizontal Axis.

Clip #3: The Videographer is not filming from the side and the performer does not maintain heading.

Clip #4: The performer performs this sequence facing the camera rather than presenting his side to the camera. How serious is this mistake? Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10? The performer loops about the Body Left-Right Axis (through the hips) but the board is off axis.

What would you score if the performer were to pause between each loop in this compulsory sequence?

Sample Skysurf Compulsory dive for practice judging. Compulsory Sequences are: Side Layout Twist Sequence, BBF Layout Loop Twist Sequence, Scorpion, and Double Side Layout Loop Sequence. It is assumed that this practice judging tape will be paused on freeze frame by the moderator or with Pegasus or other tool.

Freeflying

5.12. Compulsory Routine Freeflying

5.12.1. Judges give a score for the Performers between 0 and 10 expressed as a number up to one decimal point, for each of the four compulsory sequences, using the following guidelines.
10 points - Move performed flawlessly with proper proximity and control.
8 points - Some minor mistakes (slight differences in proximity or levels, slightly off heading, etc.)
5 points - Mistakes. (moderate differences in proximity of levels, wobbling, etc.)
3 points - Major mistakes. (major differences in proximity of levels, major wobbling, long time needed to come together, etc.)
0 points - Move not identifiable

5.12.2. Complete separation must be shown between each Compulsory Sequence.

ADDENDUM - A
COMPULSORY MOVES FREEFLYING 2001
PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS & JUDGEMENT CRITERIA

GRIP - A recognizable stationary contact of the hand(s) of one Performer on a specified part of the body of the other Performer, performed in a controlled manner.

DOCK - A recognizable stationary contact of the foot (feet) of one Performer on a specified part of the body of the other Performer, performed in a controlled manner.

For the compulsory sequences, no grips are allowed on any part of the parachute harness.

The following body parts are specified:
* head: the part of the body above the neck.
* shoulder: the upper part of the body between the neck and the upper arm.
* upper arm: the part of the arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
* lower arm: the part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist.
* hand: the part of the arm past the wrist.
* upper leg: the part of the leg between the leg strap of the parachute harness and the knee
* lower leg: the part of the leg between the knee and the ankle.
* foot: the part of the leg past the ankle.
* foot sole: that part of the foot on which a person stands.

EXIT - A loose exit, with no grips or dock between the Performers and/or Videographer, must be performed for the compulsory rounds.

RANDOMS

FF-1. Spock
One Performer is in an upright orientation, the other Performer is in a head-down orientation facing each other. The Performer in the head-down orientation takes a hand grip on the top of the head of the other Performer.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The upright performer is in a full standup position while the team performs the Spock.

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The upright performer is in a sit position while the team performs the Spock. If this performance was with the same control as in the first clip, would you score a Spock with the upright performer in a sit equal to one with the upright performer in a standing position? Since the rules do not indicate which way of performing it is better, then they would score equally. Right? BTW, the Videographer is moving.

Clip #3: The head-down performer briefly touches the head of the upright performer. The performers then dock into the Spock formation. Would you score the brief touching of the head as the first attempt on the Spock and the actual well performed Spock would not be scored since it would then be regarded as a second attempt?

Clip #4: Before establishing a Spock, this team performs a formation in which the upright performer puts his hand on the head of the head-down performer. Is there the possibility that a judge may regard this as an attempt to perform the Spock?

FF-2. Sixty - nine
One Performer is in an upright orientation, the other Performer is in a head-down orientation facing each other. The Performer in the head-down orientation takes a double hand grip on the lower leg of the of the other Performer, in such a way that his left hand is on the right lower leg and his right hand is on the left lower leg.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The head-down performer needs to cross his arms in order to put his left hand on the right lower leg and his right hand on the left lower leg. Bulletin #10 publishes an update to the description of the Sixty - nine. However, is it certain that all teams have received it? Assuming that this team did not receive Bulletin #10, would this team expect to receive a better score than the other teams in the following clips?

Clip #2: The Sixty - nine is performed without the arms crossed. The upright performer is in a sit position. Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? After reviewing Bulletin #10, do you change your decision? The Videographer presents a side view of the formation.

Clip #3: When the Sixty - nine was originally invented and performed in freefly as early as 1994, it was performed by both partners establishing grips on the other's lower legs. However, the description in the rules require only that the head-down partner establish grips on the legs of the upright performer. Assuming all other factors equal, will you score a Sixty - nine with the upright performer also taking grips less, equal, or more than a Sixty - nine in which only the head-down performer takes grips on the upright performer? Those more familiar with the history of freeflying are likely to believe that the Sixty - nine was originally invented with both upper and lower grips. This team perhaps expects the competition to remember the history of freeflying and to give more points for performing it in the original manner. However, then, this would put new teams at a possible disadvantage since they may not know the history of freeflying as well.

Clip #4: The Videographer is behind the head-down performer as the Sixty - nine is performed. Does the position of the Videographer, even though none is prescribed in the rules, effect the score you award? Why?

Clip #5: The Sixty - nine is established with the grips at the knees. The rule indicates "...a double hand grip on the lower leg..." How does this effect the score you award? Do you regard this as "Major Mistakes" and therefore award a score no higher than 3? Also, the Videographer crops the upper body of the upright performer with the lower portion of the frame.

Clip #6: The Videographer films the Sixty - nine from a view nearly straight above. (Supposing that the Videographer would have flown closer,) does this different view point effect your scoring?

FF-3. Vertical Compressed
One Performer is in an upright orientation, the other Performer in a head-down orientation. Both Performers take a grip on the leg at the knee of the other Performer. Both Performers are facing the same direction. CAMERA: the vertical compressed must be filmed from the front, facing both Performers, on the same level.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The Vertical Compressed is performed facing the Videographer and with the grips established at the knees. The Videographer's shadow is seen on the performers. When teams perform better, one tends to notice the smaller details even more. So, might this be a reason why it is more challenging for a team to earn a perfect score???

Clip #2: The Vertical Compressed is performed facing the Videographer and with grips established at the ankles. Added to the rules for 2001, it is indicated that, "Both Performers take a grip on the leg at the knee..." How would you score this formation with ankle grips? Some judges may indicate that the compulsory sequence was not identifiable and award zero points. Other judges may feel that it is very smoothly performed except for the "minor" problem that the grips are in the incorrect location and give a relatively high score. Examples like these can result in a "divided" judges' panel. Do you consider the incorrect grips to be "Major Mistakes?"

Clip #3: The Vertical Compressed is performed facing the Videographer and with grips established on the leg straps. The rules indicate, "no grips are allowed on any part of the parachute harness." Does this mean that the sequence should be regarded as not identifiable and therefore receive a score of zero points?

Clip #4: They dock facing one another and unfold to face the camera in a Vertical Compressed. Does this mean that the move was performed without complete separation? How do you score it?

Clip #5: One of the two performers is facing the incorrect heading. How does this effect your scoring?...How many points do you deduct? Would you consider this to be "Major Mistakes?" Is incorrect heading and grips at the ankles considered to be equally bad "Major Mistakes" and therefore qualify for a similarly low score?

Clip #6: The vertical compress is performed with no regard to the Videographer (facing away). Rules previous to the 2001 rules make no implication that this should be performed facing the camera. In the case that this team (in this simulation) studied older version of the rules, how does this effect the score you award? In those rules for previous years, there was no reward for those teams who made the effort to present the Vertical Compressed to the Videographer.

Clip #7: Because they are wearing black jumpsuits and if the TV brightness is reduced, it may be difficult to observe the performers' headings.

Clip #8: The performers flail for the grips and then achieve the Vertical Compressed only for an instant. Since no holding time is prescribed in the rules, should this team still receive a good score? When does scoring for a compulsory begin and end? Just only when it is established? Or, starting from the separation from the previous compulsory sequence?

Clip #9: The Videographer is drifting horizontally.

FF-4. Sole-to-Sole
One Performer is in an upright orientation, the other in a head-down orientation, facing each other. A sole-to-sole dock is performed.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The Sole-to-Sole is held for a long period of time. However, according to the rules, do these freeflyers have an advantage over those in clip #3?

Clip #2: The feet reach for one another, retract, and then they perform the Sole-to-Sole. How does this effect your scoring? Does that moment where they reach with the feet count as the attempt to perform the Sole-to-Sole and therefore they earn a very low score for this compulsory sequence? What if the feet touched one another briefly and then touch again for their intended performance?

Clip #3: Even though they fly with reasonable proximity and level control, they quickly jab the soles of the feet together. Nothing in the rules requires them to hold the formation for any certain amount of time. So does this mean that this team receives nearly as good a score as the team in clip #1?

Clip #4: The performers bump the tops of the feet first before the Sole-to-Sole happens. How does this effect your scoring decision?

Clip #5: Did the Soles of the two feet establish contact? What is your score if they did establish contact? What is your score if they failed to establish contact?

Clip #6: The two freeflyers perform the compulsory sequence by hooking the ankles instead of putting the Soles of the feet together. How serious is the mistake? Do you consider it to be "Major Mistakes" or the sequence not identifiable? Do other judges have a different opinion than your own?

FF-5. Totem
Both Performers are in an upright orientation. One Performer performes a feet-to-shoulder dock, a separate foot on each side of the head. The Performers must be facing the same direction.

Clip #1: Both performers are upright and completely standing while facing the same heading. It is more difficult to dock from complete separation. Should this team score more than the team in clip #2? If yes, how does the team in clip #2 know that their technique is not the best? If another team performs a Totem just as nicely but using a sitting position, should they score as nicely as this team? If not, how can they know that a full standup would earn a better score if it is not indicated in the rules?

Clip #2: The performers perform a Sixty - nine as a formation from which they can transition into the Totem. The head-down performer frontloops into the upright position underneath the other performer. Do you feel that the requirement of complete separation was satisfied? Why or why not? Assuming that the Totem is the first randomly drawn compulsory sequence for the dive, does this effect your scoring? If the Sixty - nine was the previous compulsory sequence and the Totem the second compulsory sequence, how does this effect your scoring? If the Sixty - nine is to be the fourth compulsory sequence of the compulsory routine while the Totem is the first, how does this effect your scoring?

Clip #3: The performers take a long time to build the Totem. Should the time to build the formation effect the scoring? Can the performers know whether or not it is important by studying the rules?

Clip #4: The performers are upright and fly in a sit position. They dock into a Totem facing one another. Even though it is smoothly performed, do you consider this to be "Major Mistakes" and award very low points?

Clip #5: This team performs a Train exit and they establish no contact in a Totem. Does the Train exit count as their attempt to perform a Totem?

Clip #6: The performers proceed to establish a Totem from complete separation. Do they really touch? Or, is one just standing behind the other?

BLOCKS

FF-A. Helicopter Carve One Performer is in a spinning head-down orientation (Helicopter). The spin must be a minimum of 3 revolutions. The other Performer is carving in the opposite direction as to the helicopter, in a head-down orientation. The heads of all Team Members shall be at the same level. A minimum 360 rotation must be performed by the carving Performer.

CAMERA: Camera must start behind the carving Performer and should stay in line, behind this Performer during the whole sequence,

For all heads to be at the same level, this would mean that the viewer should see the horizon line at the eye level of both performers. This means the Videographer's head is also at the same level.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? During the carving, the Videographer was offset to one side of the carving performer. Technically speaking, if the Videographer remained perfectly behind the carving Performer, the performer in the Helicopter would be completely obscured from view. The performer in the Helicopter was obscured from view for a brief moment. Nearly 360 degrees of carving is accomplished.

Clip #2: The Videographer is initially 90 degrees offset from the carving performer and is nearly 180 degrees offset from the carving performer after 360 degrees of carving is accomplished.

Clip #3: The Videographer carves in the opposite direction as the carving performer. How serious do you consider this mistake to be? Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10?

FF-B. Double Head Down Carve
Both Performers are in the head-down orientation facing each other. Both Performers start carving around an imaginary centre between them. A minimum 720 rotation must be performed by the carving Performers. The carving orbits should be round (not elliptical) The carving Performers should stay on level and must keep facing each other during the move.

CAMERA: Camera should be carving around in the opposite direction as the Performers' carving direction, with the heads of all Team Members at the same level.

Some performers will carve faster than others. With all other performance factors equal, will you score a faster carve equal to a slower carve? If not and you decide to give a higher score, can performers know that carving faster is ideal and will earn more reward by studying the rules?

How will you judge the 720 degrees of carving? Relative to the Videographer? Or, relative to ground references? Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10?

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: The performers are particularly close to one another. Both Performers' heads appear level with one another, however, they appear below the horizon from the perspective of the Videographer.

Clip #3: The heads are varying in level by the amount of one head.

Clip #4: Would you consider this a better performance?

Clip #5: One performer's legs are bent at the knees. Is there any indication in the rules whether or not the performers' bodies must mirror one another? Does the difference in the body positions effect your scoring? If yes, can the performers know that by having studied the rules?

Clip #6:

Clip #7: Varying level control.

Clip #8: During the Double Head-down Carve, the Videographer is significantly below but is still carving around the performers. Rules from previous years did not indicate that the Videographer had to fly on level.

Clip #9: During the carving, the performers' bodies are vertical rather than leaning back (though there are some points where the bodies lean after carving is in progress).

Clip #10: The Videographer is below the performers, out of position. How much does this effect your score?

Clip #11: The Videographer films from a position above and does not carve. Do you consider this to be "Major Mistakes" and how much does this effect your score? Do you change your decision after reviewing Bulletin #10?

Clip #12: 720 degrees of carving is not performed.

During Clips 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 12, the video image is upside-down. During Clips 3, 5, 9, and 11, the video image is upright. Was this a factor in your scoring for any of the clips? Upon reviewing the rules, does it matter whether the video image is upside-down or upright?

FF-C. Eagle
One Performer is in an upright orientation, the other in a head-down orientation, facing each other. The Performer in the head-down goes below and between the legs of the other Performer, as the other Performer goes over the top, moving around an imaginary centre between them, so that both Performers end up in opposite positions than they originally started. The movement continues until both Performers end up in their relative starting positions. The rotation should be performed as one continuous movement. The distance between the Performers should remain the same during the eagle. The Performers should maintain the same heading.

CAMERA: The Eagle should be filmed from the side.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not?

Clip #2: The Eagle is performed with the Torso section of the performers overlapping. Do you consider this to be a flaw? Does this effect your score?

Clip #3: The Eagle has a slightly oval shape in the vertical dimension.

Clip #4: The performers have horizontally separation while performing the Eagle.

FF-D. Rock-The-Cradle
Both Performers are in an upright orientation facing each other. One performer goes below the other (feet first), the other Performers performes half a Front Loop in place, so that both Performers end up facing each other in head-down orientation. After a momentary stop in the head-down orientation, the Performer that initiated the feet first move, now moves below the other (head first), as the other Performer performes half a Back Loop in place, so that both Performers end up facing each other in the same upright orientation as they started. The Performers should maintain the same heading. The distance between the Performers should remain the same during the Rock-the-Cradle.

Clip #1: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? The performer that remains high loops in place and the performer that passes underneath does the traveling.

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? Both performers cooperate well in relative flight compensating for one another. While performed nicely, both performers travel more equally through the space. Do you consider this to be "Major Mistakes"? Do other judges have similar or different views?

Clip #3: When finishing the second half of the rotation, one performer is too much vertically over the other, requiring a correction.

Clip #4: During the second half of the rotation, one performer pirouettes (turns).

FF-E. Double Joker
One Performer is in an upright orientation, the other in a head-down orientation, facing each other. A hand grip is taken and must be showed stationary. The formation is rotated 180 over the top, until the upright Performer is head-down. The hand-to-hand grip must be maintained during the transition. The Performers should end up on the opposite heading. This rotation should be one continuous and simultaneous movement.

Clip #1: The performers leave in a head-down formation and one performer rotates to the upright orientation and then releases grips. Is there a possibility that any judge might consider this to be an attempt to perform a Double Joker, even though this team obviously performs the Double Joker next? The Double Joker is performed with the both performers rotating about the Body Left-Right (loop) Axis.

Clip #2: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? During the Double Joker, the performers rotate about the Body Front-Back (cartwheel) Axis. Is this a mistake? If so, how serious is this mistake?

Clip #3: Do you consider this clip to be an ideal example on how this compulsory sequence should be performed? Why, or why not? During the Double Joker, the performers rotate about the Body Front-Back (cartwheel) Axis and they rotate in opposition to one another. Is this a mistake? If so, how serious is this mistake?

Clip #4: When proceeding to begin the Double Joker, the performers reach for the initial grip multiple times before successfully establishing it. Does this effect your score for the Double Joker? (Also, they rotate about the Body Front-Back (cartwheel) Axis.)

Sample Freefly Compulsory dive #1 for practice judging. Compulsory Sequences are: Totem, Vertical Compressed, Sole-to-Sole, and Double Head-down Carve. It is assumed that this practice judging tape will be paused on freeze frame by the moderator or with Pegasus or other tool. The Videographer is facing towards the sun...Does this effect your scoring? If so, how?

Sample Freefly Compulsory dive #2 for practice judging. Compulsory Sequences are: Totem, Vertical Compressed, Sole-to-Sole, and Double Head-down Carve. It is assumed that this practice judging tape will be paused on freeze frame by the moderator or with Pegasus or other tool. The performers held the Totem too long and fall away from the Videographer. The building of the second compulsory sequence, the Vertical Compressed, is difficult to observe. Is it required that judges be able to see the build of a compulsory sequence?

Cloud Dancer
© Copyright 2001. Tamara Koyn. All Rights Reserved.